Punjab Public Finance and fiscal Policy

Punjab Public Finance and fiscal Policy:- Introduction Punjab economy was India’s leading state economy during the pre-reforms era, especially after the Green Revolution. Thus, Punjab acquired the status of being the most vibrant and prosperous state. Over a long period, Punjab remained at the first position in terms of per-capita income. The state has lost … Read more

Punjab Tax and Economic Reform

Punjab Tax and Economic Reform   Tax is very important very important part of government revenues. But sometimes it is necessary to reform the tax structure keeping eye on current economic conditions. We will learn about Tax and Economic reforms in Punjab in the following paragraphs. Fiscal Reforms in Punjab Monetary changes frame a vital piece … Read more

Role of Commercial Banks

Role of Commercial Banks A Commercial bank is a type of financial institution that provides services such as accepting deposits, making business loans, and offering basic investment products There is acute shortage of capital. People lack initiative and enterprise. Means of transport are undeveloped. Industry is depressed. The commercial banks help in overcoming these obstacles and promoting … Read more

MONETARY POLICIES

Monetary Policies Monetary policy is the process by which the monetary authority of a country controls the supply of money, often targeting an inflation rate or interest rate to ensure price stability and general trust in the currency. Objectives of Monetary Policies are:- Accelerated growth of the economy Balancing saving and investments Exchange rate stabilization Price … Read more

Miscellaneous Facts:

Miscellaneous Facts:   India’s GDP per Capita 622 (US $ PPP). It is 684 US $ for Pakistan.   The top 3 countries with external debt are Brazil (235 billion $), China (193 billion $) & Russia (175 billion $). India is 9th with 112 billion $.   Functional employment occurs when people change from … Read more

Commissions/Committees & Their Purpose

  Commissions/Committees & Their Purpose Arjun Sen Gupta   Public Sector Enterprise Autonomy Committee         Rangarajan Committee   Disinvestment of PSUs & Balance of Payments. Malhotra Committee   Insurance Sector & its regulation. Follow up led to setting up of IRDA. Madhukar Committee   Gold exchange traded fund implementation. L.C. Gupta Committee … Read more

Four Modes of Services under GATT

  Four Modes of Services under GATT Mode 1 Cross border trade, which is defined as delivery of a service from the territory of one   country into the territory of other country; Mode 2 Consumption abroad – this mode covers supply of a service of one country to the service   consumer of any … Read more

Direct & Indirect Taxes

    Direct & Indirect Taxes   Direct Tax   Indirect Tax     Corporation Tax   Excise Duties     Income Tax   Service Tax     Interest Tax   Central Value Added Tax (Vat)     Expenditure Tax   Sales Tax     Wealth Tax   Property Tax     Gift Tax   … Read more

Components of Money Supply

    Components of Money Supply   M1 Consists of currency with the public (ie notes & coins in circulation minus cash with the banks)   plus demand deposits with the bank (deposits which can be withdrawn without notice) plus   other deposits with RBI (usually negligible). Also called narrow money M2 M1 + saving … Read more

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